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Deepam Trust - Pollution Carbon Control

Environmental pollution

“Water and air, the two essential fluids on which all life depends, have become global garbage cans.”
We all are living in a fast world, where we deplete natural resources for our own comfort and luxury. Developmental activities such as construction, transportation and manufacturing not only deplete the natural resources but also produce large amount of wastes that leads to pollution of air, water, soil, and oceans, global warming and acid rains. Agricultural Productivity is declining in India each year. Major cause of loss of crop productivity is untreated or improperly treated waste. Such untreated wastes pollute rivers, which are the main factors for agriculture. As the children of nature, we bear the responsibility of stopping the activities that cause resource depletion and carry out activities for a sustainable development. Types of pollution, their causes and solutions are explained below for people to get an awareness of Do’s and Don’ts against nature. Major Types of pollution

  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Land Pollution

Air Pollution

Air pollution is a result of industrial and certain domestic activities. An ever increasing use of fossil fuels in power plants, industries, transportation, mining, construction of buildings, stone quarries had led to air pollution.
A recent survey conducted by WHO (World Health Organisation), reveals that there are six Indian cities among the top ten most polluted cities in the world, with Delhi leading the list.
Approximately four thousand people died in the “Smog Disaster“, a high concentrated air pollution, that happened in London in the year 1952.

Causes

  • The biggest single air polluter is road transport such as cars. As the luxury increases, usage of cars also gets increased.
  • Power plants use fossil fuels to produce electricity. Fossil fuels are the largest greenhouse gas emitters in the world, contributing 3/4 of all carbon, methane and other greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Industries have increased in a large number after industrial revolution. These industries emit chemical wastes into air, which in turn causes acid rain.
  • Petroleum is the driving force behind vehicles, but it is a major contributor to global air pollution. Petroleum releases carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide into the air, which, when inhaled, can lead to illnesses.
  • High voltage power lines, especially those located near polluted cities, attract air that contains harmful particulates. The electricity running through the lines results in the charging or the ionization of the air.
  • Indoor pollution is often due to poor infrastructure. Urban infrastructures are usually afflicted with a condition called “Sick Building Syndrome.” Fumes from household chemicals, paint, and other substances get trapped in the building because of the lack of ventilation. These fumes can cause a variety of health problems for its homeowners, tenants, or visitors.



Solutions

  • Try to avoid using cars and bikes. Instead use public transport mode which can reduce the rate of air getting polluted as well as the use of petrol.
  • Switch off fans and lights when you are going out. Large amount of fossil fuels are burnt to produce electricity.
  • We can install solar panels at our homes for electricity. This can reduce the need for producing electricity using power plants.
  • Plant trees in locations around your home to provide shade in the summer, and to allow light in the winter.
  • Tall chimneys should be installed in factories.
  • Stop burning wastes and decrease the use of crackers for unnecessary purposes.

Water pollution

Dirty water is the world’s biggest health risk, and continues to threaten both quality of life and public health. We rely on clean water to survive, but right now we are heading towards a water crisis. Changing climate patterns are threatening lakes and rivers, and key sources that we use for drinking water are being polluted. 5000 people die every day as a result of drinking unclean water. Around 1000 children die in India every year due to diseases caused from the polluted water.

Causes

  • Many industries do not have proper waste management system and drain the waste in the fresh water which goes into rivers, canals and later into sea.
  • The sewage and waste water that is produced by each household is chemically treated and released in to sea with fresh water. The sewage water carries harmful bacteria and chemicals that can cause serious health problems.
  • Ships carrying oil cause oil spilling in sea, which causes sea water get polluted and killing organisms in sea.
  • Trees are being cut for development of roads and flyovers, because of which the amount of rainfall is decreasing gradually.
  • Mining can increase the amount of minerals and salts in the water.


Solutions

  • Adequate sewage and industrial waste treatment in sewage treatment plants is necessary before dumping them into river bodies.
  • Conserve water whenever possible.
  • Plastic bags in the ocean are a water pollutant. Use recyclable bags and reusable bags instead.
  • Soil erosion is one of the biggest causes of water pollution today. By taking steps to conserve soil, we can also prevent water from getting polluted.
  • Most of the hazardous pollutants that are discharged in the atmosphere each year are released to surface water, and ground water. Hence by preventing air pollution we can prevent water pollution.
  • Recycling can reduce water pollution to 50%. A glass that is produced from recycled glass instead of raw materials can reduce water pollution by 50%.

Land pollution

Our land is being polluted and abused constantly and we are unable to calculate the damages incurred. Land gets polluted by human activities like deforestation, mining and industrialization. As people are getting migrated to cities for better life, it caused a dearth of land. Forests around the cities are being cut and suburbs have come up where the immigrants began to live. Due to this deforestation, ecosystems got disturbed and many plant and animal habitats are being destroyed.

Causes

  • The process of mining leads to the formation of piles of coal and slag. When these wastes are not disposed through proper channel, they are accumulated and contaminate the land.
  • Deforestation is the one of the major causes of Land degradation.
  • The disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, including containers, bottles and cans made of plastic leads to the pollution of land.
  • E-Wastes like computer parts, old machines, mobile phone parts, accessories have added to the land pollution. Only 12.5% of e-waste is currently recycled.
  • Chemicals in pesticides and herbicides used in agriculture as well as poisonous substances left behind by mining, have polluted the land to a great extent.


Solutions

  • Instead of dumping human waste into designated landfills, our waste can be recycled or incinerated to lessen pollutants.
  • Make people aware about the concept of Reduce, Recycle and Reuse. Buy and use products that have been recycled.
  • Researches show that trees can actually fertilize the soil. By growing trees, soil will become fertile, agriculture will get boosted and land pollution will greatly reduce.
  • Do not litter on the ground and do proper disposal of garbage.

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